10 Hedgerow Trials, Cabo Delgado

Implemented by: Flemming Nielsen (FACT/ Banana hill)

Main findings: The plants are too young to allow any firm conclusions. Furthermore the data collection was not of sufficient quality for part of the time and on short reliable data series have thus been obtained so far.


Objective

To test how spacing and planting material used in Jatropha curcas hedges affect the yield of Jatropha curcas

Background

Initially the project focused on small farm plots of Jatropha curcas in mono-cropping. However, with time the focus moved to boundary planting of Jatropha curcas as this is preferred by the farmers. Initially boundary plantings consisted of one row of Jatropha curcas but recently dual rows have become popular.

The farmers practice mixed inter-cropping without planting on line or homogeneous crop mix. This makes it difficult to achieve rigorous results from on-farm boundary plantings. More controlled conditions are required. After discussions with the project staff it was felt that the farmers' demonstration plots would be the best location for the trial. A positive side effect is that many farmers can observe it and draw their own conclusions and that it can be part of the training sessions in the Farmers' Clubs.

In the demonstration plots it is be easier to keep the crop planted on one side of the hedge uniform and also ensure uniform management of the trial.

Because the crops in the trial are not planted and managed in the same ways as farmers do the crop yield in the experiment cannot be assumed to reflect yield in farmers fields'.

It has been shown that Jatropha can easily be established from seedlings, cuttings and direct seeding. Plants established from cuttings appear to yield seed earlier than any other method. However, because cuttings don't develop tap roots they are susceptible to drought and wind and therefore not preferred. A combination of seedlings or direct seedling with cuttings may be the best way to quickly get yield and still secure good long-term yield.

In the literature spacing for hedges are often 15-25 cm. However, in the project area farmers never plant that dense so the closest spacing that is tested is 25 cm. One treatment consists of a single row of Jatropha curcas spaced 50 cm apart. This resembles farmers' practice and is therefore considered the control in the experiment.

Treatments

The following three treatments are tested:
  1. Single row of seedlings planted 50 cm apart (control)
  2. Single row with planting distance 25 cm consisting of 3 cuttings followed by 1 seedling followed by 3 cuttings etc.
  3. Single row with planting distance 25 cm consisting of 3 cuttings followed by 1 plant established from direct seeding followed by 3 cuttings etc.
  4. Dual row 50 cm apart. The spacing between plants in both rows is 25 cm. The plant stations alternate. The row facing the field consist of cuttings and the row facing the path consist of seedlings
Below is a detailed description of each treatment and the surroundings.

Treatment 1 (Control)
 _________________________________________________

path (2m for fire protection)
_________________________________________________
0 50cm 1m 1.5m 2m 2.5m 3m
|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| measure yield from central 2m
 N N N N N N N N N N N N

///////////////////////////////////////////////// min. 2 m of crops
///////////////////////crops///////////////////// planted 1.5m from
///////////////////////////////////////////////// Jatropha hedge
/////////////////////////////////////////////////

N: Nursery seedling: non-measured
N: Nursery seedling: measured



Treatment 2
_________________________________________________

path (2m for fire protection)
_________________________________________________

0 50cm 1m 1.5m 2m 2.5m 3m
 |...|.:.|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|.:.|...|...| measure yield from central 2m
N C C C N C C C N C C C

///////////////////////////////////////////////// min. 2 m of crops
///////////////////////crops///////////////////// planted 1.5m from
///////////////////////////////////////////////// Jatropha hedge
/////////////////////////////////////////////////

N: Nursery seedling: non-measured C: Cutting: non-measured
N: Nursery seedling: measured C: Cutting: measured



Treatment 3
_________________________________________________

path (2m for fire protection)
_________________________________________________
0 50cm 1m 1.5m 2m 2.5m 3m
|...|.:.|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|.:.|...|...| measure yield from central 2m
S C C C S C C C S C C C

///////////////////////////////////////////////// min. 2 m of crops
///////////////////////crops///////////////////// planted 1.5m from
///////////////////////////////////////////////// Jatropha hedge
/////////////////////////////////////////////////

N: Nursery seedling: non-measured S: Direct seeding: non-measured
N: Nursery seedling: measured S: Direct seeding: measured



Treatment 4
_________________________________________________

path (2m for fire protection)
_________________________________________________
0 50cm 1m 1.5m 2m 2.5m 3m
|...|:..|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|:..|...|...| measure yield from central 2m
N N N N N N N N 75cm between rows
C C C C C C C C of Jatropha curcas

///////////////////////////////////////////////// min. 2m of crops
///////////////////////crops///////////////////// planted 1.5m from
///////////////////////////////////////////////// Jatropha hedge
/////////////////////////////////////////////////

N: Nursery seedling: non-measured C: Cutting: non-measured
 N
: Nursery seedling: measured C: Cutting: measured

The crop in the experiment will be a crop that is grown by the farmers in the area. A rotation of crops will likely be used. In every season the same crop will be planted uniformly (line planting) throughout each block in a uniform way.

Observe that treatment 4 is 75cm wider than the other treatments and that in all cases the distance between the first crop row and the hedge has to be 1.5m. The lines of crops will therefore be interrupted at the double row hedge, e.g.

       _________________________________
       _________________________________   path
    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Jatropha hedge
    XXXXXXXX
    .........................
    ........
    ......................... lines of crops (min 2m wide)
    ........
    .........................
    ........

Experimental Design

A Randomized Complete Block Design is used. Four blocks have been established.

Layout

The randomization of the treatments:

Randomization of the treatments
block 1 block 2 block 3 block 4
3 4 2 1
4 1 3 2
2 3 1 4
1 2 4 3

Example: Layout of the block 1

< -- 3 m -- > < -- 3 m -- > < -- 3 m -- > < -- 3 m -- >
min. 2 m { Uniform crop
0.5m { Jatropha hedge treatment 3 Jatropha hedge treatment 4 Jatropha hedge treatment 2 Jatropha hedge treatment 1
2 m { path (no vegetation)

No replanting is done as this is in line with the common practice of farmers in the area.

Materials

Jatropha planting material required for one block:

  • 21 seedlings
  • 30 cuttings
  • 3 seeds
All planting material is of the same origin.

For the crop:
  • annual crop like maize or beans
For data collection:
  • clearly labeled bags or evenlopes for collecting seeds
  • a 5 kg scale
  • a data sheet

Management of Hedges

The hedges are pruned according to the recommendations from the project.

Data Collection

Data is being collected from two meter hedge in each plot, i.e. to avoid border effects the last ca. 50 cm hedge that is bordering the plot is left out of the sampling. The plants that are sampled are marked with coloured strings. Seeds should be collected while still on the plant, i.e. when the fruits are yellow to ensure that sampling is only done from the plants included in the sampling.

Data to  collect monthly:

  • Jatropha curcas yield, dry weight de-shelled fruits
  • Did pruning take place;
  • Did harvesting take place;
  • Did flowering take place;
  • Did leaf shedding take place;
  • Was there pest damage;
  • What crops grow next to the hedge;
Data to be collected annually:
  • Number of terminal branches

Site Layout





Photo Documentation

Hedge improvement trial block 1

October 2008

Hedge improvement trial block 2

October 2008

April 2009

Hedge improvement trial block 3

October 2008

April 2009

September 2009

April 2010

November 2010

Hedge improvement trial block 4

April 2009

April 2009

April 2010

November 2010

SelectionFile type iconFile nameDescriptionSizeRevisionTimeUser
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Flemming Nielsen (2009): Analysis of Yield Data, April to August 2009  132k v. 5 16 Feb 2011, 04:27 Banana hill Consultants
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Flemming Nielsen (2008): Poster for 'Improved Jatropha curcas hedges, Primeiro de Maio, block 4'   588k v. 1 22 Mar 2011, 11:42 Banana hill Consultants
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Flemming Nielsen (2008): Poster for 'Improved Jatropha curcas hedges, EPF Bilibiza, block 1'   588k v. 8 22 Mar 2011, 11:38 Banana hill Consultants
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Flemming Nielsen (2008): Poster for 'Improved Jatropha curcas hedges, EPF Bilibiza, block 2'   588k v. 2 22 Mar 2011, 11:39 Banana hill Consultants
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Flemming Nielsen (2008): Poster for 'Improved Jatropha curcas hedges, Ngeue, block 3'   659k v. 1 22 Mar 2011, 11:41 Banana hill Consultants
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Flemming Nielsen (2008): Site Layout - EPF Bilibiza  69k v. 1 22 Mar 2011, 11:53 Banana hill Consultants
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Flemming Nielsen (2008): Site Layout - Ngeue  66k v. 1 22 Mar 2011, 11:54 Banana hill Consultants
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Flemming Nielsen (2008): Site Layout - Primeiro de Maio  52k v. 1 22 Mar 2011, 11:54 Banana hill Consultants
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